, In 2014, the Wall Street Journal published a letter from billionaire Thomas Perkins that compared the "progressive war on the American one percent" of wealthiest Americans and the Occupy movement's "demonization of the rich" to the Kristallnacht and anti-semitism in Nazi Germany. Violent attacks on Jews and Judaism throughout the Reich and in the recently annexed Sudetenland began on November 8 and continued until November 11 in Hannover and the free city of Danzig, which had not then been incorporated into the Reich. Auf den 9. November 1938 wird im Einigungsvertrag 1990 (Abs. November trat in der deutschen Geschichte mehrmals in den Fokus: The streets were full of people shouting: 'Juden Raus! , The rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland. November 1938 zu ermöglichen. On November 9–10, 1938, Nazi leaders unleashed a series of pogroms against the Jewish population in Germany and recently incorporated territories. Wie Sie dem Web-Tracking widersprechen können sowie weitere Informationen dazu finden Sie in unserer, Die Quadriga auf dem Brandenburger vor der Kuppel des Reichstagsgebäudes in Berlin (© picture alliance / 360-Berlin ), Kontraste - Auf den Spuren einer Diktatur, Gesetz über das Bundesverfassungsgericht, Podcast "Rechtsextreme Rückzugsräume" - die Reihe, Datenbank "Politische Bildung und Polizei", Informationen zur politischen Bildung: Revolution von 1848, Dossier Erster Weltkrieg: Das Ende des Kaiserreichs, Informationen zur politischen Bildung: Nationalsozialismus - Aufstieg und Herrschaft, Hintergrund aktuell: Als die Mauer fiel - der 9. Am 3. Among the items found were glass bottles engraved with the Star of David, mezuzot, painted window sills, and the armrests of chairs found in synagogues, in addition to an ornamental swastika.  A study conducted in 1933 had then shown that 33% of Nazi Party members held no racial prejudice while 13% supported persecution. On 9 November 1938 more than 1,000 synagogues were attacked in Germany and Austria. Walter Buch to Goring, 13.2.1939, Michaelis and Schraepler, Ursachen, Vol.12, p. 582 as cited in Friedländer, p. 271. 2 EV) jedoch der 3. In one single night 92 Jews were murdered and 25,000–30,000 were arrested and deported to concentration camps. The following is the unedited account by my father, Johannes U. Hoeber, of what he experienced on the night of November 9-10, 1938 in the large north German city of Düsseldorf . Aron and Minna Zack's Passport. Die Erinnerung schwankt zwischen Entsetzen und Freude, zwischen der Reichspogromnacht 1938 … November 9, 1938 Joseph Goebbels demands radical action German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels delivers a passionate antisemitic speech to the Naz Party faithful in Munich. Jüdische Geschäfte und Synagogen werden durch Nationalsozialisten und ihre Anhänger zerstört. Gemeinsam gedenken wir der all jener Menschen, die vor 82 Jahren in der Pogromnacht beraubt, gequält und erniedrigt wurden. This wave of violence took place throughout Germany, annexed Austria, and in areas of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia recently occupied by German troops. November fällt eine ... Auch aus Rücksicht auf das Gedenken an den 9. Early reports estimated that 91 Jews had been murdered.  Herschel received a postcard from his family from the Polish border, describing the family's expulsion: "No one told us what was up, but we realized this was going to be the end ... We haven't a penny. , There are many indications of Protestant and Catholic disapproval of racial persecution; for example, anti-Nazi Protestants adopted the Barmen Declaration in 1934, and the Catholic church had already distributed pastoral letters critical of Nazi racial ideology, and the Nazi regime expected to encounter organised resistance from it following Kristallnacht. Im kommenden Jahr fällt das Datum auf einen Dienstag. Sarah Ann Gordon sees two possible reasons for this difference. Alle reden über 30 Jahre Mauerfall, kaum einer über die Novemberpogrome. Elf Familiengeschichten zeigen, was Verfolgung, Kriege und Ost-West-Konflikt für Juden in Europa konkret bedeuten konnten. Aufl. Der 9./10. Für die Bundeskanzlerin steht der 9. On Nov. 9, 1938, Nazis in Germany and Austria unleashed pogroms that killed dozens and wounded thousands following the assassination of a German diplomat by a Jewish gunman. Lucas, Eric. Mit dem Angriff auf Polen beginnt der Zweite Weltkrieg. , The British historian Martin Gilbert believes that "many non-Jews resented the round-up", his opinion being supported by German witness Dr. Arthur Flehinger who recalls seeing "people crying while watching from behind their curtains". Zeitzeugeninterviews dargestellt. Following the violence, police departments recorded a large number of suicides and rapes. Word of his death reached Hitler that evening while he was with several key members of the Nazi party at a dinner commemorating the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. They waited there in harsh conditions to be allowed to enter Poland. The German band BAP published a song titled "Kristallnaach" in their Cologne dialect, dealing with the emotions engendered by the Kristallnacht. The extent of the damage done on Kristallnacht was so great that many Germans are said to have expressed their disapproval of it, and to have described it as senseless. Eugene Davidson. ("Mir wäre lieber gewesen, ihr hättet 200 Juden erschlagen und hättet nicht solche Werte vernichtet!"). In der Reichspogromnacht brennen jüdische Geschäfte und Synagogen. "Heydrich's secret instructions regarding the riots in November 1938", "Die "Kristallnacht"-Lüge - Die Ereignisse vom 9./10. At a conference on the day after the pogrom, Hermann Göring said: "The Jewish problem will reach its solution if, in anytime soon, we will be drawn into war beyond our border—then it is obvious that we will have to manage a final account with the Jews. At least 90 Jews were killed and … There are six notable events in German history that are connected to 9 November: the execution of Robert Blum in 1848, the end of the monarchies in 1918, the naming of Albert Einstein as the winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, Hitler putsch attempt in 1923, the Nazi antisemitic pogroms in 1938 and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. November 9-10, 1938, Jews under arrest paraded at Oldenburg, Germany, during Kristallnacht 9. November 1938 auch zynisch (Reichs-)Kristallnacht bzw. , The persecution and economic damage inflicted upon German Jews continued after the pogrom, even as their places of business were ransacked. At 1:20 am on 10 November 1938, Reinhard Heydrich sent an urgent secret telegram to the Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police; SiPo) and the Sturmabteilung (SA), containing instructions regarding the riots. " Their rights as citizens had been stripped. Deren Schreckensherrschaft manifestierte sich unter anderem im 9. , The number of emigrating Jews surged, as those who were able to left the country. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1996. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images German officials refused to accept the tendered document. , Pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, "Windows of shops owned by Jews which were broken during a coordinated anti-Jewish demonstration in Berlin, known as.  One of the first legal measures issued was an order by Heinrich Himmler, commander of all German police, forbidding Jews to possess any weapons whatsoever and imposing a penalty of twenty years' confinement in a concentration camp upon every Jew found in possession of a weapon hereafter. Nazi propaganda alienated 500,000 Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.86% of the overall population, and framed them as an enemy responsible for Germany's defeat in the First World War and for its subsequent economic disasters, such as the 1920s hyperinflation and Wall Street Crash Great Depression. On November 9, 1938, in an event that would foreshadow the Holocaust, German Nazis launch a campaign of terror against Jewish people and their homes and … The death of Ernst von Rath, the legation secretary (who was in fact anti-Nazi) was used by the Germans as an excuse to mount a pogrom …  In the so-called "Polenaktion", more than 12,000 Polish Jews, among them the philosopher and theologian Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, and future literary critic Marcel Reich-Ranicki were expelled from Germany on 28 October 1938, on Hitler's orders. 9. 1848, 1918, 1923, 1938, 1989 - Das Quiz zur Zeitgeschichte, Für Mut und Zivilcourage: Projekttag "9. , Former German Kaiser Wilhelm II commented "For the first time, I am ashamed to be German.". It appeared to be unplanned, set off by Germans' anger over the assassination of a German official in Paris at the hands of a Jewish teenager. As part of government policy, the Nazis seized houses, shops, and other property the émigrés left behind. These laws resulted in the exclusion and alienation of Jews from German social and political life. A more personal response, in 1939, was the oratorio A Child of Our Time by the English composer Michael Tippett. Heinrich Himmler wrote, "I suppose that it is Goebbels's megalomania...and stupidity which is responsible for starting this operation now, in a particularly difficult diplomatic situation. Das Aufgaben- und Medienpaket zur Reichspogromnacht enthält Filme, Audiodateien, Originaldokumente und geschichtswissenschaftliche Texte, außerdem zu jeder Quelle Arbeitsaufträge. 9. Kristallnacht, Nov. 9-10, 1938. Aron and Minna Zack lived in Neidenburg, in Eastern Prussia, Germany, with their children, Paula, Julius, Kurt, Helmut and Annie. Die inszenierte Empörung – Der 9. November 1938 für die dunkelste Phase der deutschen Geschichte. Thus, the overreaction to Herschel Grynszpan's attempt against the diplomat Ernst vom Rath came into being and led to the November pogrom. The German authorities looked on without intervening. The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words "of the greatest anti-Semite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews. 78 ed.). The unprecedented pogrom of November 9-10, 1938 in Germany has passed into history as Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass). After intense discussions, Hitler left the assembly abruptly without giving his usual address. On the night of 9 November 1938, the Nazi government coordinated a wave of attacks in Germany and Austria, on synagogues, Jewish-owned businesses and homes.. Also see November 9 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) Cambodia - Independence Day (1953) Pakistan - Allama Iqbal Day (1877) Germany - November 9th is often called Germany's Schicksalstag (day of fate) due to the events of 1848, 1918, 1923, 1938, and 1989. (The title is a reference to Arnold Schoenberg's 1899 work "Verklärte Nacht" that presaged his pioneering work on atonal music; Schoenberg was an Austrian Jew who would move to the United States to escape the Nazis). Die vorliegenden Materialien sollen dazu dienen, einen Projekttag zum 9. Im November 1938 initiierten die Nazis einen Pogrom gegen Juden: Synagogen brannten, Menschen wurden ermordet und ins KZ verschleppt. 9. , In 1938, just after Kristallnacht, the psychologist Michael Müller-Claudius interviewed 41 randomly selected Nazi Party members on their attitudes towards racial persecution. A newspaper in Britain described the last move, which cut off the Jewish populace from their leaders, as "intended to disrupt the Jewish community and rob it of the last frail ties which hold it together. , Martin Sasse, Nazi Party member and bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thuringia, leading member of the Nazi German Christians, one of the schismatic factions of German Protestantism, published a compendium of Martin Luther's writings shortly after the Kristallnacht; Sasse "applauded the burning of the synagogues" and the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, "On 10 November 1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany." November 1938 | ZbE", "The deportation of Regensburg Jews to Dachau concentration camp", "JudenVermoegersabgabe" (The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies), "Kristallnacht remnants unearthed near Berlin", "NEW CAMPAIGN AGAINST JEWS NAZI OUTBREAKS", http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2013/11/8/1383904706426/goebbels-001.jpg, Reformation: Europe's House Divided, 1490-1700, "Telegram protesting against the persecution of Jews in Germany", "Millionaire Apologizes for Comparing Progressives to Nazis, Says His Watch Is Worth a '6-Pack of Rolexes, "Tom Perkins: Billionaire venture capitalist ridiculed after writing letter comparing the treatment of rich Americans to the Holocaust", "Tom Perkins Responds To Nazi Germany And 1 Percent Criticism, Says Kristallnacht Was 'Terrible Word To Have Chosen, "St. Louis Jewish cemetery rededicated after gravestones toppled by vandals - Diaspora - Jerusalem Post", "Holocaust Memorial in Boston damaged for second time this summer - The Boston Globe", "Finance minister slams Judenboykott, Kristallnacht re-enaction against Muslims in Sri Lanka", "Interview with Miriam Ron, Witness to the Events of Kristallnacht", "The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers – Kristallnacht", "Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9–10, 1938", "Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms", National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist German Doctors' League, National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, Bund: Gemeinschaft für ein sozialistisches Leben, List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Anti-Jewish violence in Czechoslovakia (1918–1920), Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting, Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kristallnacht&oldid=992343055, Attacks on buildings and structures in Germany, Attacks on religious buildings and structures in Europe, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 19:39.