Early reports estimated that 91 Jews had been murdered. , Former German Kaiser Wilhelm II commented "For the first time, I am ashamed to be German.". This event came to be called Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass) because of the shattered glass that littered the streets after the vandalism and destruction of Jewish-owned businesses, synagogues, and homes.  Historian Gerhard Weinberg is quoted as saying: Houses of worship burned down, vandalized, in every community in the country where people either participate or watch. That night an old friend… Märzrevolution 1848, Novemberrevolution 1918, Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch 1923, Novemberpogrom 1938, Fall der Berliner Mauer 1989 – aber was ist noch in diesen fünf Jahren passiert? Interpretation of the pogrom of November 9–10, 1938 from an ethnic perspective must begin with some remarks on the applicability of the concept of ethnicity to the Jews in Germany. ("Mir wäre lieber gewesen, ihr hättet 200 Juden erschlagen und hättet nicht solche Werte vernichtet!"). The following is the unedited account by my father, Johannes U. Hoeber, of what he experienced on the night of November 9-10, 1938 in the large north German city of Düsseldorf . In the ten months following Kristallnacht, more than 115,000 Jews emigrated from the Reich. There are six notable events in German history that are connected to 9 November: the execution of Robert Blum in 1848, the end of the monarchies in 1918, the naming of Albert Einstein as the winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, Hitler putsch attempt in 1923, the Nazi antisemitic pogroms in 1938 and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. November 1938: Reichspogromnacht. Wednesday November 9, 1938. The violence would continue for nearly two days, and the Nazis chose to name it Kristallnacht or crystal night -- symbolizing the final shattering of Jewish existence in Germany. 1938 Al Capp, cartoonist of Li'l Abner, creates Sadie Hawkins Day; 1938 Kristallnacht begins: pogrom against Jews in Germany and Austria - first large-scale physical act of anti-Jewish violence, begins; Event of Interest. , In an article released for publication on the evening of 11 November, Goebbels ascribed the events of Kristallnacht to the "healthy instincts" of the German people. , Some leading party officials disagreed with Goebbels' actions, fearing the diplomatic crisis it would provoke. " The international Évian Conference on 6 July 1938 addressed the issue of Jewish and Gypsy immigration to other countries. On Nov. 9-10, 1938, in Germany and Austria, there was organized terrorism by Nazis against Jews, marking an escalation in the violence. Zunächst steht die Frage nach dem zukünftigen System – parlamentarische Demokratie oder Rätesystem – zur Diskussion. Jedes Jahr fallen an diesem Tag Feier- und Gedenkstunde zusammen. Die Hackeschen Höfe. Kristallnacht, the night of November 9–10, 1938, when German Nazis attacked Jewish persons and property. Der Tag ging als "Reichspogromnacht" in die Geschichtsbücher ein. Unmittelbar nach der Machteroberung 1933 beginnt die Verfolgung von politischen Gegnern, Juden, Sinti und Roma, Homosexuellen, "Asozialen" und "Erbkranken". To mark … Wie gut kennen Sie sich in der Zeitgeschichte aus? " Less than 24 hours after Kristallnacht, Adolf Hitler made a one-hour long speech in front of a group of journalists where he completely ignored the recent events on everyone's mind. On the night of Nov. 9, 1938, gangs of Nazis attacked Jewish businesses and religious sites around Germany, destroying thousands of stores and synagogues. , To the consternation of the Nazis, the Kristallnacht affected public opinion counter to their desires, the peak of opposition against the Nazi racial policies was reached just then, when according to almost all accounts the vast majority of Germans rejected the violence perpetrated against the Jews. Mit dem Angriff auf Polen beginnt der Zweite Weltkrieg.  The Times of London observed on 11 November 1938: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenceless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday. By the time the conference took place, more than 250,000 Jews had fled Germany and Austria, which had been annexed by Germany in March 1938; more than 300,000 German and Austrian Jews continued to seek refuge and asylum from oppression. Wie konnte es soweit kommen? , The persecution and economic damage inflicted upon German Jews continued after the pogrom, even as their places of business were ransacked. Word of his death reached Hitler that evening while he was with several key members of the Nazi party at a dinner commemorating the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. Das Datum 9. It Came From Within. November 1938 wird im Einigungsvertrag 1990 (Abs. Rolf Dessauers recalls how a neighbor came forward and restored a portrait of Paul Ehrlich that had been "slashed to ribbons" by the Sturmabteilung. At 1:20 am on 10 November 1938, Reinhard Heydrich sent an urgent secret telegram to the Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police; SiPo) and the Sturmabteilung (SA), containing instructions regarding the riots. November trat in der deutschen Geschichte mehrmals in den Fokus: zu können sowie zu Statistik-und Analysezwecken (Web-Tracking). On 6 December 1938, William Cooper, an Aboriginal Australian, led a delegation of the Australian Aboriginal League on a march through Melbourne to the German Consulate to deliver a petition which condemned the "cruel persecution of the Jewish people by the Nazi government of Germany". Am 9.  Tag des Jahres (KW 45). It is widely assumed that the assassination was politically motivated, but historian Hans-Jürgen Döscher says the shooting may have been the result of a homosexual love affair gone wrong. November 2019, einundachtzig Jahre nach der Reichspogromnacht, in der in Deutschland Juden misshandelt, Synagogen niedergebrannt, Toras geschändet und jüdische Geschäfte zerstört wurden, fand in Deutschland eine Feier zum dreißigsten Jahrestag des Mauerfalls statt, bei der die deutsche Regie dachte, dass es endlich mal wieder Zeit wird, Juden zu kritisieren. The German authorities looked on without intervening. Grynszpan and vom Rath had become intimate after they met in Le Boeuf sur le Toit, which was a popular meeting place for gay men at the time.  The Catholic leadership however, just as the various Protestant churches, refrained from responding with organised action. die Situation im Nachkriegseuropa sowie nach 1990. James Wesley Rawles November 9, 2020 November 9, 2020 November 9th (1938) was “ Kristallnacht ”, in Nazi Germany. Wolfgang Brenner: Das deutsche Datum. The Polish government threatened to extradite all Jews who were Polish citizens but would stay in Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side. I saw fashionably dressed women clapping their hands and screaming with glee, while respectable middle-class mothers held up their babies to see the "fun".  British historian Martin Gilbert wrote that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so widely reported as it was happening, and the accounts from foreign journalists working in Germany sent shockwaves around the world. Hundreds of synagogues were destroyed, 7,500 Jewish-owned businesses, homes, and schools were plundered; 91 Jews were murdered; and 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps.  Prior to this large-scale and organized violence against the Jews, the Nazi's primary objective was to eject them from Germany, leaving their wealth behind. 16)". Walter Buch to Goring, 13.2.1939, Michaelis and Schraepler, Ursachen, Vol.12, p. 582 as cited in Friedländer, p. 271. What happened on November 9, 1938. 9. Für die Bundeskanzlerin steht der 9. The United States recalled its ambassador (but it did not break off diplomatic relations) while other governments severed diplomatic relations with Germany in protest. "The sovereigns", Kibbutz Kfar Blum (Palestine), 1945, p. 171 cited in Gilbert, op.cit., p 67. This stalemate continued for days in the pouring rain, with the Jews marching without food or shelter between the borders. 28 Jahre war die Berliner Mauer Symbol der deutschen Teilung und des Kalten Krieges. On Nov. 9, 1938, Nazis in Germany and Austria unleashed pogroms that killed dozens and wounded thousands following the assassination of a German diplomat by a Jewish gunman. Many Jews were arrested, some were beaten, and some were even killed. They were ordered to leave their homes in a single night and were allowed only one suitcase per person to carry their belongings. In one single night 92 Jews were murdered and 25,000–30,000 were arrested and deported to concentration camps.  Some historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence against the Jews and were waiting for an appropriate provocation; there is evidence of this planning dating back to 1937. November 1938 in Deutschland? He opined that events then taking place, such as deforestation and ozone depletion, prefigured a greater environmental catastrophe in the way Kristallnacht prefigured the Holocaust. " Diarmaid MacCulloch argued that Luther's 1543 pamphlet, On the Jews and Their Lies was a "blueprint" for the Kristallnacht. A massive, coordinated attack on Jews throughout the German Reich on the night of November 9, 1938, into the next day, has come to be known as Kristallnacht or The Night of Broken Glass. As the Jews were taken away, their remaining possessions were seized as loot both by Nazi authorities and by neighbors.  Over 1400 synagogues and prayer rooms, many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish shops, and 29 department stores were damaged, and in many cases destroyed. After this, the Jewish community was fined 1 billion Reichsmarks (equivalent to 4 billion 2009 € or 7 billion in 2020 USD). Mit dem deutschen Überfall auf Polen begann am 1. dankte ab, in den Wirren der darauffolgenden Revolution wird die Republik ausgerufen. " The chief party judge Walter Buch later stated that the message was clear; with these words, Goebbels had commanded the party leaders to organize a pogrom. Oktober 1990 trat die DDR der Bundesrepublik bei, Deutschland war wiedervereinigt. Goebbels had recently suffered humiliation for the ineffectiveness of his propaganda campaign during the Sudeten crisis, and was in some disgrace over an affair with a Czech actress, Lída Baarová. November 1918, 1923, 1938, 1989: Ein Datum, vier Wendepunkte der deutschen Geschichte On November 9–10, 1938, Nazi leaders unleashed a series of pogroms against the Jewish population in Germany and recently incorporated territories.  Nevertheless, individuals continued to show courage, for example, a parson paid the medical bills of a Jewish cancer patient and was sentenced to a large fine and several months in prison in 1941, Reformed Church pastor Paul Schneider placed a Nazi sympathizer under church discipline and he was subsequently sent to Buchenwald where he was murdered. The German band BAP published a song titled "Kristallnaach" in their Cologne dialect, dealing with the emotions engendered by the Kristallnacht. He went on to explain: "The German people are anti-Semitic. The Nazis coordinated the attack on Jewish people and their property in Germany and German-controlled lands … Heinrich Himmler wrote, "I suppose that it is Goebbels's megalomania...and stupidity which is responsible for starting this operation now, in a particularly difficult diplomatic situation. They served in the German army and navy and contributed to every field of German business, science and culture.  November 1938 stürmten Schlägertrupps der Nazis Orte jüdischen Lebens in ganz Deutschland. , In 1938, just after Kristallnacht, the psychologist Michael Müller-Claudius interviewed 41 randomly selected Nazi Party members on their attitudes towards racial persecution. Geschichte und Geschichten Feiner Lebenswelt in der Mitte Berlins (Gesellschaft Hackesche Höfe e.V. Das Kalenderblatt zum 9.November 1938: Der 9. im November des Jahres 1938 fiel auf den Wochentag Mittwoch und war der 313. November ist das bemerkenswerteste Datum in der jüngeren deutschen Geschichte. November): Nach einem Mordanschlag auf einen deutschen Diplomaten in Paris inszenieren die Nationalsozialisten die Novemberpogrome (bis in die Gegenwart ist die Nacht vom 9. auf den 10. November. Eines jährt sich 2018 zum 80. Tucson News TV channel briefly reported on a 2008 remembrance meeting at a local Jewish congregation. Although violence against Jews had not been explicitly condoned by the authorities, there were cases of Jews being beaten or assaulted. At least 90 Jews were killed and … November 1938 wurden auf Geheiß der nationalsozialistischen Führungsriege in ganz Deutschland Läden und Wohnungen jüdischer Bürger geplündert und zerstört, Synagogen in Brand gesetzt und Juden ermordet. November 1938 | ZbE", "The deportation of Regensburg Jews to Dachau concentration camp", "JudenVermoegersabgabe" (The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies), "Kristallnacht remnants unearthed near Berlin", "NEW CAMPAIGN AGAINST JEWS NAZI OUTBREAKS", http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2013/11/8/1383904706426/goebbels-001.jpg, Reformation: Europe's House Divided, 1490-1700, "Telegram protesting against the persecution of Jews in Germany", "Millionaire Apologizes for Comparing Progressives to Nazis, Says His Watch Is Worth a '6-Pack of Rolexes, "Tom Perkins: Billionaire venture capitalist ridiculed after writing letter comparing the treatment of rich Americans to the Holocaust", "Tom Perkins Responds To Nazi Germany And 1 Percent Criticism, Says Kristallnacht Was 'Terrible Word To Have Chosen, "St. Louis Jewish cemetery rededicated after gravestones toppled by vandals - Diaspora - Jerusalem Post", "Holocaust Memorial in Boston damaged for second time this summer - The Boston Globe", "Finance minister slams Judenboykott, Kristallnacht re-enaction against Muslims in Sri Lanka", "Interview with Miriam Ron, Witness to the Events of Kristallnacht", "The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers – Kristallnacht", "Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9–10, 1938", "Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms", National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist German Doctors' League, National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, Bund: Gemeinschaft für ein sozialistisches Leben, List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Anti-Jewish violence in Czechoslovakia (1918–1920), Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting, Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kristallnacht&oldid=992343055, Attacks on buildings and structures in Germany, Attacks on religious buildings and structures in Europe, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 19:39. In fact, German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and other Nazis carefully organized the pogroms.  From its inception, Hitler's régime moved quickly to introduce anti-Jewish policies. A newspaper in Britain described the last move, which cut off the Jewish populace from their leaders, as "intended to disrupt the Jewish community and rob it of the last frail ties which hold it together. Guardian archive image of Goebbels foreign press conference: Bernd Nellessen, "Die schweigende Kirche: Katholiken und Judenverfolgung", in Büttner (ed) Die Deutschen und die Judenverfolgung im Dritten Reich, p. 265, cited in Daniel Goldhagen's Hitler's Willing Executioners (Vintage, 1997). In August 1938, German authorities announced that residence permits for foreigners were being canceled and would have to be renewed. Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass, was an anti-Jewish pogrom in Nazi Germany on November 9th-10th, 1938.—it was much more than just a pogrom. November 1938 auch zynisch (Reichs-)Kristallnacht bzw. Leo Trepp wurde 1913 geboren und war 1938 Landesrabbiner in Oldenburg. Graml, Anti-Semitism, p. 13 cited in Friedländer, op.cit., p 272. Rückblick und Chronik des Jahres 1938 in Deutschland. Europe - Inventor's Day - in honor of Hedy Lamarr's birthday Lucas, Eric. , The next day, the German government retaliated, barring Jewish children from German state elementary schools, indefinitely suspending Jewish cultural activities, and putting a halt to the publication of Jewish newspapers and magazines, including the three national German Jewish newspapers. On 9 November 1938 more than 1,000 synagogues were attacked in Germany and Austria. The German power metal band Masterplan's debut album, Masterplan (2003), features an anti-Nazi song entitled "Crystal Night" as the fourth track.  In a 1997 interview, the German historian Hans Mommsen claimed that a major motive for the pogrom was the desire of the Gauleiters of the NSDAP to seize Jewish property and businesses. Then it will be necessary to explain the long-term background, the environment of the year 1938, the development of the pogrom itself, and some of its larger purposes. , The rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland. A Catholic nun was sentenced to death in 1945 for helping Jews. " Their rights as citizens had been stripped. According to Volker Ullrich, "...a line had been crossed: Germany had left the community of civilised nations. Die inszenierte Empörung – Der 9. Aron Zack. 9. After intense discussions, Hitler left the assembly abruptly without giving his usual address. 8.11.1938, Dienstag. " It discredited pro-Nazi movements in Europe and North America, leading to an eventual decline in their support. Tombstones were uprooted and graves violated. Nazi thugs torched synagogues, smashed Jewish-owned shops and rounded up Jewish men across Germany on November 9, 1938, in what became known as "Kristallnacht" or the "Night of Broken Glass". Die Niederlage Deutschlands im Ersten Weltkrieg war zugleich das Ende des Kaiserreiches: Wilhelm II. 9. , Ernst Vom Rath died of his wounds on 9 November 1938. Aufl. First, by 1938 large numbers of Germans had joined the Nazi Party for pragmatic reasons rather than ideology thus diluting the percentage of rabid antisemites; second, the Kristallnacht could have caused party members to reject antisemitism that had been acceptable to them in abstract terms but which they could not support when they saw it concretely enacted.  The subsequent 1935 Nuremberg Laws stripped German Jews of their citizenship and prohibited Jews from marrying non-Jewish Germans. On November 9, 1938, in an event that would foreshadow the Holocaust, German Nazis launch a campaign of terror against Jewish people and their homes and … The son of a US consular official heard the janitor of his block cry: "They must have emptied the insane asylums and penitentiaries to find people who'd do things like that!". 0:42. Alle reden über 30 Jahre Mauerfall, kaum einer über die Novemberpogrome. , Martin Sasse, Nazi Party member and bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thuringia, leading member of the Nazi German Christians, one of the schismatic factions of German Protestantism, published a compendium of Martin Luther's writings shortly after the Kristallnacht; Sasse "applauded the burning of the synagogues" and the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, "On 10 November 1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany." They were forced to pay Judenvermögensabgabe, a collective fine of one billion marks for the murder of vom Rath (equal to roughly $US 5.5 billion in today's currency), which was levied by the compulsory acquisition of 20% of all Jewish property by the state.  Jewish homes were ransacked all throughout Germany. November 1938 in Deutschland.  During the events of Kristallnacht, several Gauleiter and deputy Gauleiters had refused orders to enact the Kristallnacht, and many leaders of the SA and of the Hitler Youth also openly refused party orders, while expressing disgust. Actress Greta Garbo. On this day, on 9 November 1938, commenced 48-hours of ‘Kristallnacht’, also known as: ‘The night of broken glass’. Nazi propaganda alienated 500,000 Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.86% of the overall population, and framed them as an enemy responsible for Germany's defeat in the First World War and for its subsequent economic disasters, such as the 1920s hyperinflation and Wall Street Crash Great Depression. 78 ed.). November 1938, als in Deutschland die Synagogen brannten. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1996. In zeitlicher Abfolge werden Ursachen, Verlauf und Folgen von Mauerbau und Mauerfall durch Texte, Film- und Tonmaterial, Fotos und  The press was also under orders to downplay the Kristallnacht, describing general events at the local level only, with prohibition against depictions of individual events. Über 1000 Synagogen, 8000 Geschäfte und zahlreiche Wohnungen von Jüdinnen und Juden wurden geplündert, zerstört, in Brand gesteckt. , Many Berliners were however deeply ashamed of the pogrom, and some took great personal risks to offer help. Crystal Night, Night of the Broken Glass, Kristellnacht, Kristalnacht. It was the outbreak of mass violence against Jews which was to end in their mass murder. Das Pogrom steht für den Antisemitismus in Deutschland und den Wandel hin zu einer Entwicklung, die in einer "Endlösung der Judenfrage" im Sinne der Ermordung der europäischen Juden im deutschen Machtbereich mündet. , Many decades later, association with the Kristallnacht anniversary was cited as the main reason against choosing 9 November (Schicksalstag), the day the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, as the new German national holiday; a different day was chosen (3 October 1990, German reunification). November gilt als "Schicksalstag" in der deutschen Geschichte. Among the items found were glass bottles engraved with the Star of David, mezuzot, painted window sills, and the armrests of chairs found in synagogues, in addition to an ornamental swastika. Following the violence, police departments recorded a large number of suicides and rapes. Sarah Ann Gordon sees two possible reasons for this difference. , Kristallnacht changed the nature of the Nazi persecution of Jews from economic, political, and social to physical with beatings, incarceration, and murder; the event is often referred to as the beginning of the Holocaust. Die "Reichspogromnacht" stellt einen vorläufigen Höhepunkt der Judenverfolgung im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland dar, die schlussendlich in den Vernichtungslagern ihren Zielpunkt fand. About 30,000 Jews were moved to concentration camps, and over 1,500 synagogues were pillaged and partly destroyed. Herder, Freiburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-451 …  Mommsen stated: The need for money by the party organization stemmed from the fact that Franz Xaver Schwarz, the party treasurer, kept the local and regional organizations of the party short of money. November 1938 zu ermöglichen. Die Unterrichtsmaterialien sind auf die Durchführung eines Projekttags ausgerichtet und enthalten sowohl didaktische und methodische Hinweise für Lehrkräfte als auch Quellen, Fotos und Arbeitsblätter für die Schülerinnen und Schüler. Der 9. I must protest so that the whole world hears my protest, and that I will do." Jede der elf Biographien wird in einem Film erzählt. November 1938 . Der 9. NS-Deutschland: Reichspogromnacht am 9. After he was taken to the office of Ernst vom Rath, Grynszpan fired five bullets at Vom Rath, two of which hit him in the abdomen. 9. November gilt als "Schicksalstag" in der deutschen Geschichte. They waited there in harsh conditions to be allowed to enter Poland. In der Reichspogromnacht brennen jüdische Geschäfte und Synagogen. Munich Germany November 9, 1938 during the remembrance of the Putsch.  An account cited that Hitler's green light for Kristallnacht was made with the belief that it would help him realize his ambition of getting rid of the Jews in Germany. , The reaction of non-Jewish Germans to Kristallnacht was varied. (ed.  Historians view Kristallnacht as a prelude to the Final Solution and the murder of six million Jews during the Holocaust.. In the 1920s, most German Jews were fully integrated into German society as German citizens. A more personal response, in 1939, was the oratorio A Child of Our Time by the English composer Michael Tippett.  Verbal complaints grew rapidly in numbers, and for example, the Duesseldorf branch of the Gestapo reported a sharp decline in anti-Semitic attitudes among the population. November 1989, Nationalsozialismus und Zweiter Weltkrieg. This wave of violence took place throughout Germany, annexed Austria, and in areas of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia recently occupied by German troops. As in the photo below in Baden … November 1938 "Die Deutschen sollten sich den lebenden Juden zuwenden". ", Kristallnacht has been referenced both explicitly and implicitly in countless cases of vandalism of Jewish property including the toppling of gravestones in a Jewish cemetery in suburban St. Louis, Missouri, and the two 2017 vandalisms of the New England Holocaust Memorial, as the memorial's founder Steve Ross discusses in his book, From Broken Glass: My Story of Finding Hope in Hitler's Death Camps to Inspire a New Generation. November 1938: Dieser Tag gehört dagegen zu den dunkelsten Kapiteln der deutschen Geschichte. The loss of prestige as a result of this abortive operation called for some sort of compensation. Dokumentation Zur Kristallnacht Paperback – January 1, 1978 by Wolfgang Freimark, Peter. The Unmaking of Adolf Hitler. Among those expelled was the family of Sendel and Riva Grynszpan, Polish Jews who had emigrated to Germany in 1911 and settled in Hanover, Germany. November 1918 ungeschehen machen würde. , Müller, in a message to SA and SS commanders, stated the "most extreme measures" were to be taken against Jewish people. ", Estimates of fatalities caused by the attacks have varied. " He received the postcard on 3 November 1938. Poland stated that it would renounce citizenship rights of Polish Jews living abroad for at least five years after the end of October, effectively making them stateless.
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