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As aforementioned, voluminous magmatism and continental flood basalts characterize some of the rift segments, while other segments, such as the Western branch, have only very small volumes of volcanic rock. Some of the most popular volcanic mountains in the world include the following: Mountain Kilimanjaro and Mountain Elgon which are both located in East Africa. Kilimanjaro is a large dormant stratovolcano composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 metres (16,893 ft); and Shira, the lowest at 4,005 metres (13,140 ft). [5][30] The rapidly eroding highlands quickly filled the valley with sediments, creating a favorable environment for the preservation of remains. Mount Elgon is part of the Eastern Volcanics in Uganda, which consist of soda-rich lavas and associated fragmental tuffs and agglomerates. Since the 1990s, evidence has been found in favor of mantle plumes beneath the EAR. The East African rift, one of the world's most dramatic extensional structures, has produced the continent's highest and lowest volcanoes, ranging from the massive Kilimanjaro to vents in Ethiopia's Danakil Depression that lie below sea level. Mountain Paricutin which is located in Mexico. Virunga Mountains, Virunga also spelled Birunga, also called Mufumbiro Mountains, volcanic range north of Lake Kivu in east-central Africa, extending about 50 miles (80 km) along the borders of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda. The Virunga Mountains and their associated lava flows extend across the Western Rift Valley. Recent improvements of tomographic Earth models of P-wave and S-wave velocities suggest that a superplume upwelling from the lower mantle at the northeastern EAR feeds plumes of smaller scale into the upper mantle. [2] The rift system consists of three microplates, the Victoria Microplate to the north, and the Rovuma and Lwandle microplates to the south. Mount Elgon is an extinct volcano that is located in the eastern side of Uganda with the largest surface area of a volcano in the world (caldera). Professor of History, North Carolina State University. The rim of Elgon’s caldera is approximately 5 miles (8 km) in diameter and contains several peaks, of which Wagagai, at 14,178 feet, is the highest. The mountain has had several volcanic activities including a minor eruption of 1910 leading to the formation of cones and craters within the vicinity. The generally smooth outlines of the cratered dome of Kibo are in marked contrast to the jagged form of Mawensi, or Mawenzi (17,564 feet); the two summits are connected by a saddle that lies at about 14,500 feet. Kilimanjaro. 1.9). Mt Elgon is the fourth highest mountain in East Africa with the second highest peak in Uganda- Wagagai (4321m). The bones of several hominid ancestors of modern humans have been found here, including those of "Lucy", a partial australopithecine skeleton discovered by anthropologist Donald Johanson dating back over 3 million years. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/place/East-African-mountains. [6] The Davie Ridge ranges between 30–120 km (19–75 mi) wide, with a west-facing scarp (east-plunging arch) along the southern half of its length that rises to 2,300 m (7,500 ft) above the sea floor. Height in feet (US): 14,177. Detailed 6 day mountain weather forecasts … The EAR began developing around the onset of the Miocene, 22–25 million years ago. Updates? Uganda borders in the East, and the Southwest are made of Volcanoes. The craggy twin peaks of Batian (17,057 feet) and Nelion (17,022 feet) are closely followed in height by Lenana (16,355 feet). Ngorongoro- Lengai Geopark is now becoming an important additional reason why tourists should keep flocking in its volcanic caldera and home to the highest density of big game in Africa. The mountains are intimately related to the East African Rift System, the fractures of which extend discontinuously between the Zambezi River valley and the Red Sea and are flanked in many areas by highlands. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [6][8] Its movement is concurrent with the EAR.[9]. The peneplain of eastern Africa, dating from the Miocene Epoch (about 23 to 5.3 million years ago), has been subject to a general elevational movement. The range lies between the Lake Kivu and Lake Edward, and is an extension of the Albertine Rift Mountains. Two neighboring volcanoes in Zaire's (today's Democratic Republic of the Congo) Virunga National Park, Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo, are responsible for nearly … [16] In accordance, a study of Halldórsson et al. Mount Elgon (4,321 meters) or 14,177ft. When the faults slip, one side rises while the other falls. The lushly forested slopes of the mountains form an appropriately dramatic natural setting for what is arguably the most poignant and memorable wildlife … Major eruptions occurred in 1912, 1938, 1948, the 1970s, and 2002. The 2002 Nyiragongo eruption destroyed much of Goma, Congo. Set amid low plateaus, Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa, rising to 19,340 feet (5,895 metres) at Uhuru peak on the Kibo cone. The shoulders of the rift valleys have risen intermittently to produce highlands on which lavas that have been ejected from fissures in the Earth’s surface have in some instances added considerable height. Best Volcano Hikes and Climbs in Uganda. [20] Numerical modeling of plume-induced continental break-up shows two distinct stages, crustal rifting followed by lithospheric breakup, and the upwelling between stages of an upper mantle plume.[21]. The highest mountain in Africa, Mt. The Aberdare Range, of which the highest peak is Mount Lesatima (Satima), reaching a height of 13,120 feet, and the Mau Escarpment rise steeply from the eastern portion of the Eastern (Great) Rift Valley. Further away from the rift axis, focal depths can be below 30 km (19 mi). The East African Rift (EAR) or East African Rift System (EARS) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa. On Kilimanjaro, Kibo crater is strewn with giant blocks of ice, and the outer rims are covered with ice reaching down to about 16,000 feet on the wet southwestern moorlands. It also runs offshore of the coast of Mozambique along the Kerimba and Lacerda grabens, which are joined by the Davie Ridge, a 2,200 km-long (1,400 mi) relic fracture zone that cuts across the West Somali basin, straddling the boundary between Tanzania and Mozambique. The first stage of rifting of the EAR is characterized by rift localization and magmatism along the entire rift zone. Shira was the first volcano of the group to become inactive, followed in turn by Mawensi and Kibo. The cratons are of significant importance in terms of mineral resources, with major deposits of gold, antimony, iron, chromium and nickel. The latter retains its caldera—1.5 miles in diameter and 600 feet deep—within which there are found successive inner cones and craters as well as fumaroles (holes or vents that emit gases). [18][19], Parallel to geological and geophysical measures (e.g. [32], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}3°00′00″S 35°30′00″E / 3.0000°S 35.5000°E / -3.0000; 35.5000, An active continental rift zone in East Africa, GFZ GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Helmholtz Centre (June 8, 2020), "Continental break-up: The East African perspective", "One of Africa's Tectonic Plates Is Rotating in a Different Direction to All the Others", "Why the Victoria Plate in Africa rotates", "A catalogue of deep mantle plumes: New results from finite‐frequency tomography", "A common mantle plume source beneath the entire East African Rift System revealed by coupled helium-neon systematics", "Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography", "Upper mantle earth structure in Africa from full‐wave ambient noise tomography", "Contrasted continental rifting via plume-craton interaction: Applications to Central East African Rift", "Plume-induced continental rifting and break-up in ultra-slow extension context: Insights from 3D numerical modeling", "Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and Middle East", "Remote sensing of heat, lava and fumarole emissions from Erta 'Ale volcano, Ethiopia", https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=221060, https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=222120, "Voluminous lava flows at Oldoinyo Lengai in 2006: chronology of events and insights into the shallow magmatic system", "Great Rift Valley Ecosystem – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", List of countries where Arabic is an official language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=East_African_Rift&oldid=1011982105, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2021, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 March 2021, at 23:05. A series of distinct rift basins, the East African Rift System extends over thousands of kilometers. Both mountains are inactive volcanoes and have permanent snow at their peaks. [1] In the past it was considered to be part of a larger Great Rift Valley that extended north to Asia Minor. The mountain is located in DRC and Uganda and is one of the most attractive mountains in Africa. The relict glaciers that occur in the summit zones of Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya, and the Ruwenzori have little erosive force. [17], The geophysical method of seismic tomography is a suitable tool to investigate Earth's subsurface structures deeper than the crust. Their more powerful predecessors, however, extended down to altitudes between 12,000 and 10,000 feet and even lower and produced arêtes (sharp-edged ridges), cirques (glacial amphitheatres), rock tarns (rock basin lakes), U-shaped valleys, and moraines (boulders and other debris deposited by glacial action). [14][29] Focal mechanism solutions strike NE and frequently demonstrate normal dip-slip faulting, although left-lateral motion is also observed. Richard and Mary Leakey have also done significant work in this region. [citation needed] The seismicity trends parallel to the rift system, with a shallow focal depth of 12–15 km (7.5–9.3 mi) beneath the rift axis. Mount Muhavura Trail: This mountain sits at the end of the volcano chain of mountains with a roundtrip trek taking between six to eight hours depending on fitness and ability. Rungwe (Makombako Gap) (Lovett and Wasser 1993). Corrections? Elgon. Jebel Marra in Sudan, Mt. To the north of the Afar Triple Junction, the rift follows one of two paths: west to the Red Sea Rift or east to the Aden Ridge in the Gulf of Aden. At its base the range is some 80 miles long, and its greatest width is about 30 miles. Cameroon in Cameroon, Mt. A 3D numerical geodynamical model of the plume-crust coupling was capable of reproducing the lateral asymmetry of the EAR around the Tanzania craton. Cameroon Mountains found in West Africa. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. There are so many Volcanic Mountains in the world. The EAR began developing around the onset of the Miocene, 22–25 million years ago. Although most of these mountains lie outside of the rift valley, the EAR created them.[23]. Kibo cone is at right, Mawensi (Mawenzi) at left. The Eastern Rift Valley (also known as Gregory Rift) includes the Main Ethiopian Rift, running eastward from the Afar Triple Junction, which continues south as the Kenyan Rift Valley. Kenya, Mt. In 1972 it was proposed that the EAR was not caused by tectonic activity, but rather by differences in crustal density. [3][4], As extension continues, lithospheric rupture will occur within 10 million years; the Somali Plate will break off and a new ocean basin will form. The range runs east-west, perpendicular to the rift valley in which lie Lakes Kivu and Edward. Omissions? [27] Its magma contains almost no silica; typical lava flows have viscosities of less than 100 Pa s,[28] comparable to olive oil at 26° C. EAR-related volcanic structures with dated activity since the onset of the Holocene include approximately 50 in Ethiopia,[5] 17 in Kenya, and 9 in Tanzania. The second highest peak, Mt. Today, the narrow rift segments of the East African Rift system form zones of localized strain. Notable active examples of EAR volcanism include Erta Ale, Dalaffilla (also called Gabuli, Alu-Dalafilla), and Ol Doinyo Lengai. isotope ratios and seismic velocities) it is constructive to test hypotheses on computer based geodynamical models. Other Volcanic mountains in Africa include Mt. [14] The question is still debated. While planning your Rwanda safari, one should not miss out on the magnificent opportunity to visit Rwanda’s Volcanoes National Park consisting of 125 km2 of mountain forest and home to the six Virunga Volcanoes and the world famous mountain gorillas. Acacia trees on the plain below the summits of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Mount Elgon is another volcanic … The Nyeri-Nanyuki corridor separates the Aberdare Range from Mount Kenya. The EAR also cuts through old sedimentary rocks deposited in ancient basins. [citation needed]. Unlike Hawaii, which formed because of hotspot volcanism roiling up, the volcano near Mayotte lies within the ancient rift where Madagascar tore away from eastern Africa long ago. It is the third and the fifth highest mountain in Tanzania and Africa, respectively. Longonot, Mt. Many cratons are found throughout the EAR, such as the Tanzania and Kaapvaal cratons. Mountain Kenya. The ancient plateau surface of gneisses and schists was upfaulted on the west and upwarped on the east. Its rotation is caused by the configuration of mechanically weaker and stronger lithospheric regions in the EARS. The Ruwenzori Range stretches between Lakes Edward and Albert on the Uganda-Congo border, and farther south the Virunga Mountains extend along the contiguous borders of Uganda, Rwanda, and Congo. Over time, many theories have tried to clarify the evolution of the East African Rift. It has been suggested that the diversity of the compositions could be partially explained by different mantle source regions. [6] The Western Rift Valley includes the Albertine Rift, and farther south, the valley of Lake Malawi. Mawenzi and Shira are extinct, while Kibo is dormant and could erupt again. [14], The African continental crust is generally cool and strong. [10] Others proposed an African superplume causing mantle deformation. The majority of earthquakes occur near the Afar Depression, with the largest typically occurring along or near major border faults. Early glaciation also affected both Mount Elgon and the Aberdare Range. Periods of extension alternated with times of relative inactivity. Rising magnificently from the surrounding plateaus to elevations over 16,000 feet (4,900 metres), the highest peaks, despite their proximity to the Equator, are ice-capped. Ash of the eruption reached villages up to 40km away. It extends from Ethiopia to Tanzania, crossing zones of major political unrest that can make travel awkward, not to say downright dangerous. In the past it was considered to be part of a larger Great Rift Valley that extended north to Asia Minor. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Not all the cones culminate in craters, but several have crater lakes. The Ruwenzori Range runs parallel to the Western Rift Valley, to which it drops steeply. The results corroborate the coexistence of a superplume “common to the entire rift” with another mantle material source being either of subcontinental type or of mid-ocean ridge type. Mounts Baker and Gessi lie entirely within Uganda, while Mounts Stanley, Speke, Emin, and Luigi di Savoia form part of the Uganda-Congo frontier. Around this core are gently dipping lavas, agglomerates, and tuffs. Of the major mountains, all but one group—the Ruwenzori (Rwenzori) Range—are of volcanic origin. Of the 10 peaks with heights of more than 16,000 feet, all but one are on Mount Stanley, which includes the highest peak, Margherita, at 16,795 feet. The EAR is the largest seismically active rift system on Earth today. East African mountains, mountain region of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi. The 20th century was marked in East Africa by a process of glacial retreat that has been rapid but neither constant nor continuous. The Western Volcanics are represented by the Virunga Mountains, of which Nyamulagira and Nyiragongo have remained active into the 21st century. The East Africa Rift Valley, a site of intercontinental volcanism, has some of the world's most fascinating and remote volcanoes (Fig. In 2008, two other hominid ancestors have been discovered here: a 10-million-year-old ape called Chororapithecus abyssinicus, found in the Afar rift in eastern Ethiopia, and Nakalipithecus nakayamai, which is also 10 million years old. The summit zone contains six distinct mountain massifs, which are separated by well-defined passes and deep river valleys. Of the glaciers remaining on Mount Kenya and covering less than 0.3 square mile, the largest are Lewis and Tyndall; the lowest tongue of ice reaches down to about 15,000 feet. Rising magnificently from the surrounding plateaus to elevations over 16,000 feet (4,900 … The world’s largest lava lake is the main attraction when climbing Mount Nyiragongo, a beautiful stratovolcano in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. [5], The Rift Valley in East Africa has been a rich source of hominid fossils that allow the study of human evolution. [31] [citation needed] Ol Doinyo Lengai is currently the only active natrocarbonatite volcano on Earth. [5] The second stage of rifting is characterized by the deactivation of large boundary faults, the development of internal fault segments, and the concentration of magmatic activity towards the rifts. The Rwenzori mountains was formed due to extreme uplift during the rift valley formation about 3 to 4 million years ago. When one thinks of mountains in Africa, Kilimanjaro seems to come to mind first. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. The mountains are intimately related to the East African Rift System, the fractures of which extend discontinuously between the Zambezi River valley and the Red Sea and are flanked in many areas by highlands. Mount Meru, about 40 miles southwest of Kilimanjaro, attains an altitude of 14,978 feet. Some of the volcanoes in East Africa include Mount Muhavura, Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895m), Virunga Mountains, Mount Elgon (4,321m), Ol Doinyo Lenga (2,962m), Mount Karisimbi (4,507m), Mount Meru (4,565m), Mount Longonot (2,776m),Mount Menengai (2,278 metres), Erta Ale (613m), Bisoke (3,711m), Gahinga (3,474m) etc. Hiking and Climbing the Virunga Mountains that Cook and the Volcanoes in Eastern Uganda – including Mount Elgon. There was also the reactivation of a pre-Cambrian weakness in the crust, a suture zone of multiple cratons, displacement along large boundary faults, and the development of deep asymmetric basins. Mount Mtelo. An eruption in 2005 created a fissure in the earth with a length of 60km. The EAR runs from the Afar Triple Junction in the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia through eastern Africa, terminating in Mozambique. Studies that contribute to the broader understanding on the evolution of rifts can be grouped into the techniques of isotope geochemistry, seismic tomography and geodynamical modeling. The long-extinct volcano of Mount Kenya has been much denuded, and the highest peaks consist of the crystalline nepheline-syenite (a granular rock of alkalic feldspar, nepheline, and other minerals), which plugged the former vent. Other mountains in the Eastern Rift area include Mount Elgon in Kenya and … As a result, Africa’s tallest mountains … The fall to the uplands of western Uganda, however, is more gradual. These processes further thin the lithosphere in saturated areas, making the thinning lithosphere behave like a mid-ocean ridge.[12]. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. More than 30 small glaciers on the Ruwenzori together cover a surface of approximately 1.5 square miles (4 square km), most of which is on Mounts Stanley and Speke; the lowest valley glacier descends to about 14,000 feet. It is an active volcano in the Afar region in Ethiopia and is part of the Rift Valley volcanic system. [22], A large volume of continental flood basalts erupted during the Oligocene, with the majority of the volcanism coinciding with the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden approximately 30 Ma. [25] The 2008 eruption of Dalaffilla, its only documented activity since the start of the Holocene,[26] is the largest recorded eruption in Ethiopian history. The second highest mountain in Africa, Mount Kenya has a girth of about 95 miles at 8,000 feet, from which it rises boldly to its restricted summit zone. It is an inverse problem technique that models which are the velocities of the inner Earth that reproduce the seismographic data recorded all around the world. Mount Stanley is 5,109… The East African Rift (EAR) or East African Rift System (EARS) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa. Kilimanjaro is a volcano of complex structure and alkaline lavas situated at an intersection of fault lines. Kenya (17,058 feet), located just north of the country’s capital of Nairobi, near the equator, is the source of Kenya’s name. According to this theory, lithospheric thinning generates volcanic activity, further increasing magmatic processes such as intrusions and numerous small plumes. [5] The EAR consists of two main branches. From west to east, these are the narrow Great Rift Valley, which slopes sharply to Lake Kivu; the volcanic Virunga Mountains, whose highest peak, the snowcapped Mount Karisimbi (14,870 feet), towers over the high northwestern lava plains; the steep north-south rise of the Mount Meru is a stratovolcano which lost much of its bulk thousands of years ago due to a volcanic blast. Vollständige Liste unter ugandagorillatrekkingfromkigali.com anzeigen Mount Mtelo (Sekerr) is the fifth highest ‘mountain’ in Kenya, after Mt Kenya, Mt Elgon, … In the west, Nyamulagira, Nyiragongo, and Mikeno are in Congo; Karisimbi—at 14,787 feet the highest of the Virunga volcanoes—and Visoke are centrally placed on the Congo-Rwanda frontier; and farther east Sabinio (Sabinyo), Mgahinga (Gahinga), and Muhavura, also known as the Mufumbiro Mountains, are on the Rwanda-Uganda frontier. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). These rifts are the result of the actions of numerous normal faults which are typical of all tectonic rift zones. Mount Kenya, the Aberdare Range, and the Mau Escarpment are located wholly within Kenya to the north of Nairobi; Mount Elgon lies astride the Uganda-Kenya border; Kilimanjaro extends along Tanzania’s northern boundary with Kenya; and Mount Meru is in northern Tanzania. The mountains are related to the East African Rift, and are in two chains, the Western Rift includes the Virunga Mountains, Mitumba Mountains, and the Rwenzori Range, while the mountains to the east include the largest peaks in Africa: the snow-covered Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895m, 19,340 ft), and Mount Kenya (5,199m, 17,058 ft). [23], The East African Rift Zone includes a number of active and dormant volcanoes, among them: Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya, Mount Longonot, Menengai Crater, Mount Karisimbi, Mount Nyiragongo, Mount Meru and Mount Elgon, as well as the Crater Highlands in Tanzania.

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